Let it be there, and competitions or direct clashes over the zones of influence continue to this day. A striking example is Ukraine, part of its territory which has fallen under the control and control of another state. Under such circumstances religious wars are not excluded.
Changes in habitats: no habitat, but communication zones
Bohdan Petrenko, deputy director of the Ukrainian Institute for Extremism Studies in a comment to ZamPolit, remarked that wars on religious grounds were conducted since the creation of religions and continue until this time:
«But today the problem of church areas has changed. Hundreds of migrants have changed habitual habitats, ethnicities and religions are mixed up. The information revolution has led to the fact that even small religious intersections in the secondary environment are becoming stronger thanks to communication through social networks. Therefore, over time, habitats will not become habitat areas, and areas of social communication — in fact, groups in social networks. «
Therefore, the question of dialogue between churches becomes more relevant, the expert believes.
«Like any personality identification, religion contributes to the positioning of one’s own and others. And as identity is built on faith, irrational, religious consciousness is difficult to perceive rational arguments in discussions. The greater faith, the greater the conviction in own right and the wrongness of the opponents. And especially the justification of violence against the «wrong».
Side effect — devaluation of life
In addition, Bogdan Petrenko emphasizes that most major religions recognize that better life comes after death.
«And this conviction leads to the depreciation of this very life — both its own and the lives of others. Therefore, there are a lot of suicide bombers among religious terrorists. For its part, the rejection of the carriers of a religion by a majority does not simply turn them into relocating. This forces the oppressed minority to hate the majority, unite and defend their interests. Including through violence «.
The secular and spiritual authorities still compete
As for the state and church dependence, it is ambiguous, Bohdan Petrenko draws attention. In his view, these social institutions are constantly in opposition to the championship.
«And when states became stronger, they began to dominate the churches. But the constant struggle actually turned into different forms of relationships. This may be real independence (Protestants), domination of the church over the state (Islam in the part of countries, Catholicism in the Middle Ages), domination of the state over the church (Orthodoxy). Religious terrorism is possible only with the strengthening of religious fanaticism. «
Ukraine has protection, but also vulnerability
If we talk about Ukraine, which was mentioned by a terrorist in New Zealand, expert Bogdan Petrenko points out that we have few religious fanatics, because there are not so many people who profess all church canons. This applies to both Christians of all religions and Ukrainian Muslims.
«There is no social base for terrorism — so a pure religious conflict is practically impossible. Moreover, we are not a territory that is used by the attention of Islamic terrorists, and therefore, it is unlikely that we should expect «avtoetki» like New Zealand shooting. «
However, the threat, in his opinion, is:
«Religion can be used as one of the reasons for deepening the political confrontation in the hybrid war — Russian and Ukrainian Orthodoxy, the spread of fake Russians on IDIL bases in Ukraine, the use of Islamic militants in confrontation with Russia, and so on. These messages have been unfastened and will be further unfolded. Their goal is to divide Ukrainian citizens into their «own» and «strangers», not to allow them to unite against a common enemy, to form a non-Angutan attitude toward Ukraine in the West «.
Critical thinking is a weapon of Ukrainians
But it is interesting that, according to Bohdan Petrenko, not Ukrainian Orthodoxy, not even so much Islam, as ROC, especially the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine (UOC), is under attack.
«The threat comes from the Kremlin, which, provoking and ordering conflicts around this church, forms not only the negative image of Ukraine abroad, but also, through the use of Ukrainian radicals, to try to shape frustration in Ukrainian patriotism. Moreover, Ukraine is in the global information field. And if mass shootings are flaring in the world, not only that for mentally ill they can become a road map for a repeat. «
But even if attackers in Ukraine will use religious motives to justify, in reality it is the influence of asocial examples of mass violence, the popularization of violent behavior patterns and the lack of critical thinking in the perception of news, the expert warns.
Hence, the effective weapon of Ukrainians against threats is critical thinking.
Support, endurance and support
Given the views expressed by experts, we can conclude that there is, at a minimum, a hint of religious confrontation and the involvement of Ukraine in them. And if one assumes that someone or some kind of force is annoying about the relatively peaceful coexistence of Orthodox churches in Ukraine, why not confront Muslims? Citizens of Ukraine who profess Islam also have a lot due to the same migration as well as historical processes. If, say, in Ukraine, someone is shooting a mosque, and the authorities do not do enough to protect Muslims and Islam, or terrorists will announce anti-Islamic slogans (for example, they will be ultra-right or immitators of ultra-right), in Ukraine there is no interconfessional conflict: not Orthodox churches, but Orthodox » I and Islam. On the other hand, it will allow some countries to talk about Ukraine as one of the centers of terrorism. At the same time, relations with Turkey, and hence the pro-Ukrainian opposition in Crimea and the world arena, will deteriorate.
As a result of this combination for a short time, Islam will be established in separate regions of Ukraine, but will receive unimpeded support for power and Orthodoxy. But Islam can be banned later in Ukraine as an ideology. Instead, Orthodoxy will be strengthened, perhaps also Catholicism and Protestantism. The latest nuance of the combination may be to de facto give Orthodox status the status of a state, traditional or priority religion. And then, the political fate of Ukraine will depend on which Orthodoxy will become basic: Russian or Greek.